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How to Understand the Role Of Turbocharger In Car?

Turbocharger Schematic

The choice of the turbocharger is mainly better to increase the steam intake of the car engine.
Many people know that the work of a car engine mostly depends on the combustion of fuel in the car engine cylinder to output power. In the case of a specific engine displacement, if you want to increase the output power of a car engine, the most effective measure is to supply more fuel to burn. However, it is easy to give more energy to the cylinder. Still, it isn’t easy to provide enough air to support the complete combustion of the fuel by the traditional air intake system.

Take a gasoline engine as an example. For every 1Kg of gasoline supplied to a cylinder, about 15KG of air must be sucked into the cylinder to ensure complete combustion of the gas. The volume of this 15KG air will be huge. It is not easy to completely suck in such a large volume of air only by the vacuum formed by the cylinder during the entire intake process of the car engine. Therefore, it is essential to improve the ability of automobile engines to suck in steam, that is, to improve the efficiency of automobile engine steam charging.

Turbocharger technology is a measure to improve the air intake capacity of a car engine

In principle, there is no mystery about turbocharging. It uses a special compressor to pre-compress the steam before entering the cylinder to increase the density of the gas entering the cylinder and reduce the steam volume. In this way, the steam mass per unit volume is increased dramatically. The steam volume can meet the fuel combustion demand to achieve the purpose of increasing the engine power.

The compressor used in the whole process of turbocharging is also called a turbocharger. An exhaust gas turbocharger is a way to boost the intake of air. According to the different energy sources used to drive the supercharger, the turbocharging measures of the automobile engine can be divided into three categories: 

The first type is a mechanical supercharging system. The engine crankshaft directly drives the turbocharger through a gear (or chain). 

Technology Status – Technology penetration is very low!
Advantages – The boost ratio can be increased according to different design needs, the work is stable, and the working temperature is low! long life! low cost! There is no lag in power, and the power delivery is very smooth. In the cylinder that allows the limited space of the engine, more compressed air can be obtained at different speeds, so that the fuel is burned more fully and environmental pollution is reduced! Increased power output without increasing the number of cylinders and weight! It is a low-cost, green and environmentally friendly technology that can be quickly promoted!

Disadvantage – needs to consume a small amount of part of the power due to the installation in the rotating shaft of the engine.


The second category is the exhaust gas turbocharger system. A turbocharger is driven by the exhaust gas discharged from the car engine. 

State of the art – widespread in the automotive sector.
(1) The engine’s volume power and litre power are greatly improved.
(2) The torque characteristics in the operating speed range of the engine are improved.
(3) Compared with the naturally aspirated engine of the same power, the fuel consumption is significantly reduced.
(4) Reduced harmful gas emissions.

(1) The turbocharger is installed on the engine hot side (on the exhaust line), and high heat-resistant materials are used for this.
(2) To install the supercharger and the intercooler, it is necessary to increase the structural cost and installation space.
(3) The torque increase of the engine in the low-speed range is not as good as the torque increase in the high-speed range.
(4) The response to engine load changes is related to the matching of the supercharger.

The third category is the compound turbocharging system. Both the exhaust gas turbocharger and the mechanically driven turbocharger are used in the automobile engine. In addition, there are other turbocharging methods, such as inertial supercharging and airwave turbocharging.

The exhaust gas turbocharger system is mainly used in automobile engines. This system is selected for 1.8T, and “T” stands for Turbocharged.